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Pearl Analysis Overview
Sri Chandra Mani - Oyster Pearls
Sri Shankh Mani - Pearl of the Conch
Sri Venu Mani - Pearl of Bamboo
Sri Matsya Mani - The Fish Pearl
Sri Tima Mani - The Whale Pearl
Sri Gaja Mani - The Elephant Pearl
Sri Varaha Mani- Pearl from the Head of Wild Boar
Sri Naga Mani- Pearl of the Cobra
Sri Megha Mani- The Cloud Pearl
Dakshinavarti Shankh-The Right-Handed Conch Shell
Rudraksha - The Sacred Seeds
Buddhist Variants
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Varahamihira and The Brhat Samhita
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Sri Garuda Puranam

Gems from the Underworld... Sri Naga Mani or The Cobra Pearls

1.  Description of  pearl.

Egg-shaped translucent, transparent, and semi-translucent gems of roughly 2cm length, 2cm diameter and weighing about 5 grams.  Some varieties are tumbled and polished while others are unpolished, and all appear in a range of colors (golden, green, red, blue, pink, white, black).  Some have stratification which may periodically change direction or contrast.  Others have hatchlike surface textures, yet others have tiny inclusions that may appear and disappear over time.

2.  References to the pearl within sacred texts.

The body of information on these pearls is fairly large in the Eastern knowledge base and the legends exist within most Asian cultures, with apparent origin in the cobra-revering Naga tribe (who literally trace their bloodline to a Cobra patriarch) found in India, Tibet and some Innuit tribes residing above the Arctic Circle.

Some of the earliest legends describe Naga women who turn from human to snake at will, aided by a jewel embedded in their forehead.  Rather than attempt to document all of this material, a synopsis may be most useful to understand Sri Naga Mani within the constructs of Hinduism and its outer borders.

The Hindu cosmology has no single concept of Hell commensurate to other religions, largely due to a participatory paradigm wherein one creates their own hell-like existence in this life as a direct result of their own misdeeds.  One can change their ways, make amends, or remain in their hell.  Ignorance, the worst sin, is considered as a degree of spiritual darkness, and awakening from ignorance reveals remedies to misdeeds and resulting misery.  The following excerpts from the sacred texts bring a broader understanding of the combined presence of deity within both the higher and lower realms:

The Agni Purana: "Under the earth is the underworld. This too, consists of seven regions and their names are Atala, Vitala, Sutala, Talatala, Mahatala, Rasatala and Patala. The daityas and the danavas live in the underworld. Vishnu is also there in the underworld, in his form of the great snake Shesha. The snake Shesha holds up the earth on its hood."

The Vayu Purana
:   "Snakes and demons live in the underworld. Atala is ruled by the demon Namuchi; Sutala by the demon Mahajambha; Vitala by the demon Prahlada; Gabhastala by the demon Kalanemi: Mahatala by the demon Virochana; Shritala by the demon Kesari; and Patala by the demon Vali. The great snake Vasuki lives in Shritala and the great snake Shesha lives in Patala. (Note- Vasuki is a king of the snakes or Nagas.  He was the son of Dakshas daughter Kadru and the sage Kashyapa. Usually, Vasuki and Shesha are regarded as synonymous, the name "Ananta" also being used.) The eyes of the snake Shesha are like red lotuses. His complexion is white and he wears blue, His thousand hoods glow with radiance."

The Vishnu Purana:  "There are seven underworlds on earth.... Here live the Danavas, Daityas, Yakshas and Nagas. Narada once went on a trip to Patala and discovered that Patala was more beautiful than Svaraga. It was a place full of jewels. During the day, the sun only provided light, but no heat. And, during the night, the moonbeams provided light, but no cold. Patala was full of rivers, forests and lakes. The inhabitants of Patala wore beautiful clothes, rubbed scented paste on their bodies and loved music. At the bottom of Patala was Vishnu in the form of a thousand-headed snake. This snake was known as Shesha."

The Bhagavata Purana:  "Since there is no sunshine in those subterranean planets, time is not divided into days and nights, and consequently fear produced by time does not exist.

"Many great serpents reside there with gems on their hoods, and the effulgence of these gems dissipates the darkness in all directions.

"Beneath Rasatala is another planetary system, known as Patala or Nagaloka, where there are many demoniac serpents, the masters of Nagaloka, such as Shankha, Kulika, Mahashankha, Shveta, Dhananjaya, Dhrtarashtra, Shankhacuda, Kambala, Ashvatara and Devadatta. The chief among them is Vasuki. They are all extremely angry, and they have many, many hoods - some snakes five hoods, some seven, some ten, others a hundred and others a thousand. These hoods are bedecked with valuable gems, and the light emanating from the gems illuminates the entire planetary system of bila-svarga."

The Brahma Purana:   " The underworld is a wonderful place, more beautiful than heaven itself.  The sage Narada once went on a trip to the underworld and was bowled over by its beauty.   It is full of palaces and jewels.  The sun rises there, but does not radiate too much of heat.   The moon also rises, but its beams are not at all chilly.  The forest are populated by beautiful trees and the ponds are thick with lotus flowers, the songs of cuckoo birds are heard everywhere.  Below the underworld sleeps a great snake, known as Shesha or Anata.  It has a thousand hoods, all covered with jewels.  In fact, this snake is really Vishnu in one of his various forms.

Not all references in the Vedic texts of radiant gold eggs regard the Underworld.  The creation story itself relates the archetype of a bright gold egg-shaped object, appeared from the water, as the first container of divinity; one from which all things manifest would emerge.

The Matsya Purana:  " The Creation.   In the beginning, there was nothing in the universe.  There was only darkness.  When the time came for creation to begin, Vishnu removed the darkness and expaned into three.  These three parts came to be known as Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva.  The first object that appeared was water and Vishnu slept on this water.  Since nara means water and ayana means resting-place, Vishnu is accordingly also known as Narayana.

"In this water next appeared a golden egg.  The egg shone with the radiance of a thousand suns.  Inside the egg, Brahma grew from the navel of Vishnu.  The egg was golden.  Garbha means womb, and since Vishnu appeared inside a golden egg, he is also known as Hiranyagarbha.

"For a thousand years Brahma stayed inside the egg.  He then split the shell into two and emerged out.  Heaven (svarga) was made from one half of the shell and the earth from the remaining half.  All the land masses, the oceans, the rivers and the mountains, had been inside the egg in embryonic form."

Neither do gems held by snakes have anything less than divine attributes...

The Mahabarata:  "Ulupi then thought of the gem that has the virtue of reviving a dead man. The gem, the great refuge of the snakes, thus thought of, came there. The daughter of the prince of snakes taking it up...    then placed that gem on the breast of Pritha's son of immeasurable energy. After the gem had been placed on his breast; the heroic and puissant Jishnu became revived. Opening his red eyes he rose up like one who had slept long. Beholding his sire, the high-souled hero of great energy, restored to consciousness and quite at his ease..."

There are many references to gems from the Nagas...

Sri Garuda Purana:  " A pearl found in the hood of a cobra is round in shape like the one obtained from the mouth of a fish and emits a dazzling effulgence from its own natural seat.  After copious washing such a pearl assumes the lustre of a well-polished sword.  The possessor of a cobra or serpent pearl meets with rare good fortune, and becomes a pious and illustrious king in time, with a treasury full of other species of precious gems. 

Dark clouds, hung down and heavily charged with rain, and roaring with the voice of the eternal trumpets blown upon at the time of universal dissolution and spangled with flashes of lightning, closely envelop the sky, at the time, when the Bramhana, well versed in the religious and ceremonial proceedings, after inquiring about the acquisition of such a pearl, and having done the necessary rite of protection unto it, formally takes it into the interior of the house of its possessor.  Neither the serpents, nor the Rakshas*, nor diseases, nor disturbances of any kind would assail the man amidst whose treasure such a snake pearl would lie. "  (ch. 69)

* In ancient Hindu mythology, they are a classification of evil spirits who, on occasion, can sometimes also be friendly. They often battle the gods and are thought to hurt people at night. The Rakshas are led by Ravana, their king, and are the eternal enemies of Vishnu, one of the foremost divinities of the Hindu pantheon. The Rakshas are the descendants of Rishi Kashyapa, a sage and a seer. They usually appear in the shape of a dog or a bird with a fat body, or as a skeleton. [Micha F. Lindemans - Encyclopedia Mythica]

The sacred texts indicate that there is no lack of precious gems in Nagaloka.  These "snake gems" have a peculiar quality such that even in the darkest night, they possess "effulgence" which lights the way so that one can at least see where they are going.  The cobras are described as having some special relationship with bright gems, reported not from Nagaloka, but throughout diverse historically documented occurrences from the Far East to Europe-  snake stones, brightly lit, and snake confrontations by trained clergy... the same type of events have occured under a number of names in different cultures; from China to Wales. The snakes are described as quite vain regarding ownership of these objects; they hide them, stow them in their hoods, treating them as a shiny treasure.  By tradition only the oldest cobras have them, whether a biological factor or one of snake competition is not known.

How such gems could make their way from Nagaloka to the Far East or the British Isles is a difficult scientific question.  Most have considered them bezoar (or stomach-produced) stones, which in some cases is inferred from being found in the body of a dead snake where it is covered with a thick opaque adhesion which conceals an inside of often flawless transparency; this appears when tumbled and polished.  In the traditions of the Khmer, Laos, and Thailand, similar artifacts are also revered; blessed by Buddhist priests rather than Hindu ones.   These very different artifacts are variously called 'Naga Cave Crystals' or 'The Naga's Eye' and purported to originate under water or in caves.   [For more information on these heavy crystal stones, see sideline notes in the section entitled Buddhist Variants.] 

It may be difficult to determine whether any one gem originated within the snake that possessed it; some may be taken by one from another, or possibly from some sort of fossil repository according to lore.  The gems come in a number of shapes, sizes, and colors, all possessing a few key properties that vary in cultural authority; a chain starting with the Vedas, through Varahamihira in Brhat Samhita; erstwhile in different but similar undercurrents within not only the Islamic world, but Christendom as well.   As a matter of natural history, the Indonesian archipelago is noted to produce many many varieties of animal and plant pearls.  The working tradition surrounding the treatment and special properties of these "mustika pearls" historically goes back furthest of all cultures with their shamans of Ilmu.  Ilmu is a spiritual order holding stewardship over millenia of accrued natural knowledge, with clerics identifying pearls down to specific animal subspecies, and teaching specific spiritual practice in a path involving the pearls themselves.

In the Puranas, an individual Cobra Pearl is to be formally installed by a Hindu priest in the owners home, and according to the Puranic literature, the weather will cut loose like the world is about to end.  If it doesn't start thundering and raining during the installation of a Cobra Pearl, it is probably not real- this the only validation point given in the holy texts themselves.  While many Cobra Pearls are literally very bright, the wider tradition indicates that the nature of 'effulgence' does not necessarily mean 'glow in the dark', but possessive of an inner brightness that is visible intuitively and that will clearly impress beyond just the eyes.


3.  Theological alignment of a given pearl group (i.e. presiding deity)

These are pearls "from the underworld", and conceptually operate in a different paradigm than the other Mani.  They are by default governed by Vasuki of Nagaloka, but once installed to an individual are bound to their owner.  They are traditionally considered "willful" artifacts, not to be subjected to anger without magnifying one's problem; in other currents indicated as amplifiers of the prevailing emotional and mental climate for good or ill.  A conscious commitment to restrain all anger is considered an important consideration for one's readiness to own a Cobra Pearl.

4.  Cosmological Inherents (i.e. gem of Heaven, Underworld)

The Naga Mani have a foundational cultural reference which ties their attributes directly with characteristics of the snake itself.  Generally, these types of gems are considered a focal point to assist one's own faith and to protect, and in a sizeable radius around their placement.  Cobra Pearl lore relates that the behavior a Cobra Pearl will exhibit, whether to higher or lower aspirations, is directly tied to an owner's personal strengths and weaknesses.  Traditionally, where one "navigates" with a Cobra Pearl... to heavenly or underworld concerns, is dependent on the character of its owner, who may face new personal choices  due to a higher level of creativity which the pearls are held to facilitate.

5.  Religious or cultural significance of given pearl variety.

The Naga Mani are revered, or at least culturally referenced, in a large percentage of the world's population.  The relationship of any given culture to its snake history is sometimes found in their attitude towards these pearls.  A cultural dualism is apparent in most culture's attitude towards snakes, and obviously quite significant along both religious and cultural lay lines.

6.  Cross-references noted within Varahamihira.

Varahamihira spends the most time on gems dealing with the subject of Naga pearls in Brhat Samhita:

"The serpents of the lineage of Taksaka and Vasuki and those that move at will, have bright, blue-tinged pearls on their hoods.  If Indra suddenly rains on a blessed spot of the earth and into a silver vessel, it should be recognized as a pearl coming from the serpents."

"A pearl born of the serpents, being worn by kings, will prove invaluable to them, destroy their misfortune and enemies, enhance their reputation and bestow victory. "

(The aggregated benefit mentioned in the last set of pearls also includes the Cobra Pearl).

Varahamihira goes on to discuss the Naga Mani in the next chapter which was supposed to be devoted to Rubies; the Snake Pearls get more attention than the Rubies in their own chapter.  He states:

"It is said that on the head of serpents there is a gem with the hue of a bee or peacock's neck, and shining like the flame of a lamp.  Such a gem is to be known as of inestimable value."

"A king who wears such a serpent-gem will never have troubles arising from poison and diseases.  Indra will always be pouring good rains in his realm, and as a result of the intrinsic power of the gem he will annihilate his enemies."

In other accounts, the procedure of stalking a snake day and night to steal its pearl is described.

7.  Ritual handling of the artifact.

The puja for Sri Naga Mani is identical to the procedure described for Sri Varaha Mani.  Additionally, high Hindu holy days such as the birthdays of primary deities, require a second bathing after the first, and the first bathing is performed with milk rather than water.   Naga Mani are not considered  'traveling pearls', and may not be neglected by extended absences.  In such cases, pearls must remain with the owner 24 hours a day.  It is taught that they must not be handled by women during menses (a topic of pointed debate with our feminist Hindu associate), and they cannot be carried on or in leather.  It should be noted that shoes must be removed when handling any of the Mani, but especially so in dealing with the Cobra Pearls.

Cobra Pearls are traditionally predisposed to Tulsi incense and fragrant flowers daily, however the flowers must not be smelled by anyone before given to the Cobra Pearls.  Cobra Pearls should be placed on a visible pedestal of some sort and permitted to enjoy the open air at their residence.  Cobra Pearls may be dressed with Lotus Oil or other fragrant non-corrosive essential oils and should not be exposed to hard metal or rough cloth.   Cobra Pearls should also be transported in a soft container with flowers inside, but if carried on one's person, only in the right pocket, never the left.

8.  Stipulations regarding ownership.

The installing priest must be informed about how the Naga Mani was obtained; in these cases the pearls are obtained by those with deep reverence to animal life and disallow hunting or killing of animals for the purpose of acquiring trophies.  So, while no Naga-hunting is allowed, at least one procedure of a snake being chased around with a blanket all night (to get it confused so it loses its gem) has been generally described as traditional fair play.   [Legal noted that all it will take is one person following the path of avidya (or ignorance... perhaps using the mantra "Um") out there with a blanket chasing a cobra... Folks, please don't try this at home or in the local reptile house at the zoo.]

Furthermore, once a Cobra Pearl is installed, it stays Installed.  An owner may only relinquish a Cobra Pearl to a temple, and a noted consideration is that few temples will receive a Naga Mani due to the responsibilities involved (this is to avoid an understanding of it tending to gravitate back towards Nagaloka with part of someone's life attached to it, as implied in tradition).   Any such potential dark side is easily avoided, however, by the owner performing weekly puja, a two-minute ritual to bathe the pearl and, according to Sri Garuda Purana, this eventually causes the jewel to glow like a polished sword blade.  Sri Naga Mani are somewhat the opposite of "bad" or "evil" or "dark" things, although conceptually are conceived within a quite different concept of reality- the environment of Nagaloka.  One of the traditional understandings of Sri Naga Mani is about lighting the way in the dark, so that even the most lost can find their way out.  It is considered a Heavenly spark to light the way of Truth even in the darkest of circumstances. 
It is also indicated traditionally that no favoritism should be shown between multiple Cobra Pearls, or with regard to one variety of Vedic pearl over another.  The tradition is such that "it may can take 9 years for the Nine Pearls to cooperate, or it can take 1 hour", depending on how one approaches the problem. The concept is that each form of God has a different 'mount' (i.e. Ganesh's mouse, Shiva's ox, Vishnu's winged Garuda), and is important inasmuch as one wouldn't tend to put natural enemies together and assume they will 'play nice' without special precautions.

9.  Historical references.

Naga lore also forks from a conjoined history with the Chinese mainland at a fixed point wherein stories about Dragons and Nagas were split between China and the subcontinent, even from stories in same original text.   Much of the adjacent history has been referenced above, although the ongoing references are too numerous to list here.

Chao Yang's Year of Tibet Edition, regarding Nagas and Tibetan Buddhism, states:  "Creatures dwelling in individual places are called Sa-dag or land owners, or guardian deities. They belong to the realm of demi-gods or ghosts- not all ghosts are miserable creatures, some are wealthy and powerful demons. They may appear to people as ghosts, demons, or in dreams in an infinite variety of forms, including the human one and may either help or harm depending on their disposition. Many of the creatures in lakes, ponds and rivers are nagas, or serpent beings who belong to the animal realm. They sometimes appear in the form of snakes, or as half snakes and half humans with elaborate jeweled crowns. They are believed to be infinitely wealthy and to owe their present form to a previous life of unethical generosity."

10.  State of scientific analysis.

There has been expressed reticince by our Vedic associates about intrusive testing due to the guidelines for ritual handling of these stones.  We will present findings and additional photography in an upcoming commercial publication.  As it is said, "To those that believe, no proof is necessary, but to those that do not believe, no proof is possible". 

11.  Geographical origin.

Various regions of the Southeast Asian subcontinent, with an emphasis on Indonesian regions of Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Ujung Kulon and other outlying archipelago. 

12.  Scientific considerations for full overview.

The tumbling process was recently filmed and is presently in the editing process, which may reveal some more clues.  The concept of subtle 'energy signatures' may be apropos.  There are techniques to examine measurable variance between energy states; if not directly found in a specimen then relative to human subjects before and during close contact with study samples.  The delta, when repeatable, could demonstrate energy state changes which will demonstrate statistical significance against control groups.

Variants to Dr. Emoto's work in Japan (which photographs crystal formation in water through subtle energy impressions using bottle-labeling) could also be performed, if not by Dr. Emoto then modified with a similar technique using water containing a pearl and one containing a control 'placebo'.  Consistent variance in the complexity of crystalline patterns produced from the Mani would minimally point to the difference between a Cobra Pearl and a control group subject, but at best could form the basis for an energy signature of individual Mani. Though our recent investigations have shown that Dr. Emoto is not able to reproduce his own results, we have some algorithms that could add statistical significance to consistent sample trends.

13.  Archaeologist review.

Uncertain as to composition or nature, referred to an associate archaeologist in India.

14.  Hindu intelligence.

Vast but inconsistent.  Knowledge of the Cobra Pearls is spotty, with some quite clued in to deep veins of historical knowledge, while others, even priests, may show no recognition of the gems.  A number of younger men raised in India have related a popular culture from youth regarding adventure stories about seeking the Naga Mani.  When shown one of the Cobra Pearls, some will light up incense since they remember that Cobra Pearls enjoy it; Hare Krishna associates may show obescience towards the pearls, while other Vaishnavas may consider them as merely mundane objects.  Largely the information is very difficult to access, at times seeming inconsistent, at others needlessly vague.  Internet knowledge bases in the Vedic context are largely vacant.   Nonetheless, while many have lost touch with some or all knowledge of The Sacred Pearls, many others are knowledge resources who are quite excited about the pearls.

15.  Gemological opinion.

As a matter within The Garuda Purana, when considered against the role of the Brahmana in authentication of the Cobra Pearls, the role of a gem expert is somewhat limited, even with respect to Oyster Pearls... "The place of origin, should not be taken into account in determining the price of a pearl.  A learned gem-expert shall only notice its shape and size." (Chapter 69)

16.  Artist overview.

Appear to have optical properties similar to plastic, but as a casual observance.

17.  Anecdotal reports.

Many have been shared, and new information about common ways to validate Cobra Pearls has been noted for later reference.  Regional reports exist that some types of cobra pearl can be dropped into water and will float, or spin, or flow upstream (going to points of density) as points of authentication.  Most trade authentication is done through obtaining clerics, as well as on the basis of subtle energies, similar to observed methodology by Hindu associates.

18.  Personal observances.

One Jewish associate was a vocal 'Cobra Pearl Agnostic' after told about The Garuda Purana and the indications regarding the Cobra Pearls.   After an installation, she later performed puja for the cobra pearls and became quite receptive to the artifacts. 

Any available light seems to aggregate into a focusable fixed point outside the gem regarding optical properties observed in these artifacts, noting in part a reference to the world 'effulgence' as translated from Sanskrit.

19.  Social response of observers

Varies, with a mean response characteristic of seriousness, curiosity, awe, and either enjoyment or uneasiness.

20.  Cross-cultural  references.

The Ilmu tribal tradition holds the key to these artifacts being used to harness "elemental spirits", which is largely understood in Western culture in popularized forms such as "I Dream of Jeannie" or "Aladdin".  Essential commonalities within the greater traditions regard the objects as facilitators of spiritual insight, things which can affect the weather, gems requiring procedures for care, and influential forces with a capacity to act on the wishes of their owner.

There are other threads of culture which uphold Divine Naga Stones which will be somewhat described in the "Buddhist Variants" section.  As mentioned, the Chinese tradition in Taoism was once anchored in similar constructs of "Naga" and "Dragon". 

21.   Miscellaneous subtleties.

The difference between the Cobra Pearls and the other pearls is that their characteristics are not exactly subtle and a variety of reported phenomenon are reported within a diverse ownership base.  Hindu tradition reports indicate that the entire area within an six-mile radius is affected by the presence of a Cobra Pearl

22.   Relative Scarcity of pearl.

Rare, with infrequent replenishment. 

23.   Known Placements.

Several are known, but largely through anecdotal reports.  These are somewhat easier to locate than the other Mani out of sheer notoriety, which we continue to document in order to refine characteristics used to analyze incoming specimens.

24.   Relative Valuation Criteria.

These gems are considered "priceless" by the Puranas.

25.  Indicated ownership benefits.

Stated in references above.

26.  Conjecture on what gives each pearl a Sacred property.

The learning curve in ownership may lend itself to studies eventuating in piety, or leadership, or result in opportunities to collect gems.

27.  Action plan for further research.

Only as mentioned heretofore.

28.  Biological and Zoological review.

The artifacts resemble gel-caps, and look like a fatty oil substance, noting the bi-layer substrate.  It is possible that the outer layer is silica and there is something like gel on the inside, but this could only be determined with a needle or syringe.  "It is possible that the inside is venom mixed with some sort of oil."

When questioned about the ability of the Hindu knowledge base to predict new occlusions or specific direction changes in the pearl layering, it was asked whether this occurred on specific dates, which it had. 

Her conclusion was that this knowledge was derived from tides, resulting in predictive mini-tides within the pattern formations.  She recommend to find a way to estimate the bi-layer densities to compare, stating deep microscopic examination may yield further insight.

29.  Final determinants.

An unexpected consultant in the form of a rock-specialist in Daytona, Florida (reported to have worked with the Smithsonian Institute) was availed upon as a local reference by the Zoologist / Molecular Biologist.  Going by only the name "bernadette" (with a lower-case "b"), she described her credentials largely as a "stone psychic", one that visits gem and mineral shows with a large following.   While her contribution in this body of collective analysis was only directed to the Cloud Pearls in the next chapter, she did offer two pieces of information; which she specifically requested to be relayed with a qualification that her comments are "only what the stones said" and "not from formal training".  She was not informed of what the stones were or what they were called.

She said that the Cobra Pearl specimen was "An Eternal".

The other, was that the stones were "something that was not necessary.'  Clarified, "something in excess".

30.  Conclusions

We find that any new owner would best experience personally whether the representations surrounding these gem are true, and be in agreement with aspects of the ownership requirements.


Bezoar - Stone produced from the stomach or digestive tract
Brhat Samhita - Treatise by Varahamihira
Dakshinavarti - Right Opening
Garuda - A winged deity that dialogues with Vishnu in a Purana
Jyotish - Science of Light (Indian Astrology)
Lakshmi - Consort of Vishnu, Goddess of Wealth
Mani - Jewel or Gem
Mukhi - Facet
Naga - Cobra or Serpent
Puja - Devotional ceremony
Purana - One of the Holy Texts
Rudraksha - Sacred Seeds  
Sanatana Dharma - The Eternal Religion (Hinduism) or Eternal Righteousness
Shankh - Conch
Vaidika Dharma - Religion of the Vedas
Veda / Vedic - Holy Text(s) of India
Varahamihira - Indian Philosopher from early last millenium
Vishnu - The "Preserver" in the Hindu trinity